HTTP Basics

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Models
  4. Controllers
    1. Dependency Injection
    2. Responses
  5. Maintenance Mode


HTTP (website) applications are the most common types of applications created with Opulence. They make it easy to handle HTTP requests, perform business logic, render views, and send HTTP responses back to the user. Opulence uses a powerful, yet simple way of building your HTTP applications - MVC (Model, View, and Controller). MVC is a programming architecture that separates your models from your views from your controllers. This allows you to swap any component of your application without affecting the rest. For example, you might decide to give your website a facelift. Doing so should really only affect the views in your application. By strictly following the MVC architecture, you can redesign your website without having to worry much at all about the backend.


Models store data and the business logic behind your application. Think of them as the heart of your application. Your models can be plain-old PHP objects in Opulence.


Views comprise the user interface portion of your application. They should be relatively independent of your models to allow proper abstraction. Opulence has a built-in template engine, although you are free to use any template engine you'd like.


Controllers act as the go-between for models and views in an application. When a model is updated, the controller updates the view. Similarly, when a view is updated, the controller updates the models. In Opulence, controllers can either be plain-old PHP classes, or they can extend Opulence\Routing\Controller, which automatically injects the HTTP request, the view factory, and the view compiler.

Dependency Injection

Opulence uses a dependency injection container to create controllers. Taking advantage of this is simple: type-hint any objects your controller needs in the controller's constructor. Opulence will inject the appropriate objects into your controllers via your bootstrappers.

Note: Primitives (eg strings and arrays) should not appear in a controller's constructor because the IoC container would have no way of resolving those dependencies at runtime. The only way around this is to set up a binding for the controller in a bootstrapper with the primitives defined. In general, it's best to stick to type-hinted objects in controller constructors.

Let's take a look at an example bootstrapper, controller, and view to demonstrate how controllers work:

namespace Project\Application\Bootstrappers\Orm;

use Opulence\Ioc\Bootstrappers\Bootstrapper;
use Opulence\Ioc\IContainer;
use Opulence\Orm\Repositories\IRepository;
use Project\Application\Http\Controllers\UserList;
use Project\Domain\Users\UserRepo;

class UserBootstrapper extends Bootstrapper
    public function registerBindings(IContainer $container)
        // Bind the user repository to the UserList controller
        $container->for(UserList::class, function (IContainer $container) {
            $container->bindSingleton(IRepository::class, UserRepo::class);
namespace Project\Application\Http\Controllers;

use Opulence\Http\Responses\Response;
use Opulence\Orm\Repositories\IRepository;
use Opulence\Routing\Controller;

class UserList extends Controller
    private $users;

    // UserBootstrapper bound UserRepo to this controller
    // So, that's what will be injected here
    public function __construct(IRepository $users)
        $this->users = $users;

    public function showAll() : Response
        // The view factory is automatically injected by the route dispatcher
        $this->view = $this->viewFactory->createView('UserList');
        $this->view->setVar('users', $this->users->getAll());

        // The view compiler is also automatically injected by the route dispatcher
        return new Response($this->viewCompiler->compile($this->view));
    <% foreach ($users as $user) %>
        <li><a href="mailto:{{ $user->getEmail() }}">{{ $user->getName() }}</a></li>
    <% endforeach %>

In this example, the bootstrapper will bind IRepository to UserRepo for the UserList controller. The route dispatcher will then instantiate this controller with the help of the IoC container. The container will scan UserList's constructor, realize that it needs a UserRepo instance, and create the UserList with a UserRepo instance.

For more information about routing, read the documentation.


Controller methods should return an instance of the Opulence\Http\Responses\Response class. If a response is not returned, whatever was returned will be wrapped up into a 200 response object.

Maintenance Mode

Sometimes, your application will need to go down for scheduled maintenance. To put your application into maintenance mode, run php apex app:down. To take it out of maintenance mode, run php apex app:up.